Welcome to CrossRef’s OpenURL resolver.

This service will accept URLs structured according to the 0.1 or 1.0 (NISO Z39.88.2004) specifications as well as some common deviations. In general it supports the San Antonio Profile #1, including in-line, by-value, and by-reference. In the presence of a “url_ver= Z39.88-2004” parameter this service will operate on a “info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx” context format with referent formats “info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal” or “info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:book”.

Otherwise the service expects a 0.1 version URL.

In addition to the entity pairs specified by the OpenURL standards, this service also responds to two foreign keys. These are optional and will return the metadata (in XML) for the referent entity instead of redirecting to its location. Normally CrossRef attempts to reduce a query to a single article. However, if the metadata is insufficient to find an exact match the 'multihit' option can be used to retrieve all candidate matches that the CrossRef system discovered. Multi hit mode operates in two ways: 1) when set to true it will return the output of the fuzzy match engine, 2) when set to exact it will perform a simple database query

redirect =”false” (sample)

multihit=”true/false/exact’ (sample)


Sample 0.1 version URLs: (this is sometimes called ‘SFX’ style URLs.)

A journal article lookup


Retrieve a DOI's metadata



Sample NISO 1.0 URLs:

Simple reverse lookup


Retrieve a DOI's metadata:


A journal article lookup

(http://www.crossref.org/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal&rft.atitle=Isolation of a common receptor for coxsackie B&rft.jtitle=Science&rft.aulast=Bergelson&rft.auinit=J&rft.date=1997&rft.volume=275&rft.spage=1320&rft.epage=1323)


This CrossRef resolver is compliant with the samples provided at http://swets.1cate.com/t/test/niso-suite-10.html only if login credentials are supplied.

OpenURL 1.0 KEV support - San Antonio Profile #1 (sap1)

ContextObject, Part 2 Example 2

In-line OpenURL

By-Value OpenURL

By-Reference OpenURL

ContextObject, Part 2 example 4

In-Line OpenURL

By-Value OpenURL

By-Reference OpenURL

ContextObject, SAP1 Implementation guidelines example 10.1.6

In-Line OpenURL

Metadata Format Tests

By-Reference Metadata in In-Line OpenURL

By-Reference Metadata in By-Value OpenURL

By-Reference Metadata in By-Ref OpenURL

The OpenURL Book Metadata Format (no DOI found for these four samples)

Implementation guidelines, Example 10.8.7

Implementation guidelines, Example 11.6.8

Implementation guidelines, Example 11.6.7

Another book example

Please provide any comments or report problems to support@crossref.org