Members, Affiliates and Agents

Participating Publishers*: 1,408 (
Members: 349 (
Affiliates: 30 (
Agents: 6 (
Library Affiliates: 490 (

*Participating publishers and societies now number 1,408 but note that this number is only considered to be a partial list because not all members have provided us with the counts or names of the societies or organizations for whom they serve as co-publisher. Please send Amy ( the list of organizations your company co-publishes for so that we can add to this already impressive list.

Upcoming Meetings

The 2005 Annual Meeting is November 15th, 2005 in London - so save the date! CrossRef will be holding a technical workshop on the afternoon of Tuesday, May 31st in Boston just prior to the SSP Annual Meeting.

DOIs in Use

Books deposits are increasing.  One example is a chapter from an IOP book "Dust in the Galactic Environment" - Karger has also started to register books - an example is the DOI for "Multiple Sklerose und Familie" -

Full Year Statistics

2004 Totals 2003 Totals % Change


Journal Titles 10,833 9,000 +20%
Conferences 6,048
Book Titles 4,649
Total Records 13,917,354 9,960,631 +40%
Total DOI Resolutions 70,732,162 44,098,763 +60%
Publishers & Societies 1,400
Members 341 264 +29%
Linkers 285 161 +77%
Depositors 326 240 +36%
Total 2004 Deposits (DOIs registered) 3,956,723 3,464,604 +14%
Total 2004 Current Deposits 1,471,718 1,006,394 +46%
Queries (references submitted) 188,927,644 101,177,977 +87%
Matches (DOIs returned) 51,430,436 18,266,364 +182%
Match % 27% 18% +50%

2004 was an excellent year with substantial growth in all key metrics that CrossRef tracks. In particular, the growth in DOI resolutions to over 70 million (60% increase) shows how much CrossRef DOI links are being clicked and therefore the impact on end users and traffic to CrossRef members' content. The matching rate also had substantial improvement rising to 27% (50% increase). A better matching rate coupled with a large increase in queries (references) submitted, lead to over 50 million DOIs (182% increase) being delivered by CrossRef for use in linking.

Another very positive sign is the steady increase in total DOIs deposited to just under 4 million (14% increase). Deposit and query stats are regularly updated at  

Financial Update

Full Year 2004 Financials & 2005 Budget
Income Statement:
2004 Full Year 2005 Budget
'04 Actuals '04 Budget '05 Budget
Revenues 2,880 2,920 3,021
Expenses 2,352 2,211 2,597
Contingencies 40 250 150
Operating Income 488 459 274
Interest Income (expense) (85) (96) (86)
Income Taxes 44 127 52
Net Income 359 236 136
Cash Balance 823 1,086 915

CrossRef entered 2004 with some uncertainty given major strategic changes in CrossRef fees (the DOI retrieval fee was dropped and annual membership fees restructured) and the IRS denial of CrossRef’s tax-exempt status at the end of 2003. Despite these challenges, CrossRef is nonetheless finishing the year in sound financial shape based on robust growth in all areas. Deposit activity for 2004 surpassed projections for the year, as did growth in membership and linking activity. The full year revenues of $2,880,000 (slightly less-than-budget by $40,000/1%) less operating expenses including contingencies of $2,392,000 (under budget by $69,000/3%) provided positive operating income of $488,000 (over budget by $29,000).

The cash balance at December 31, 2004 was $824,000. This cash balance was under the year-end budget of $1,086,000 by $262,000. Almost the entire cash shortfall was directly attributable to unfavorable timing in working capital, specifically cash collection from member annual billings. The year-end accounts receivable was $1,767,000 (vs. budget of $1,598,000); the difference of $169,000 should even out most of this difference in the 1st quarter of 2005.

In an important milestone CrossRef began repayment of the original start up loans and accrued interest. At the end of 2004, CrossRef repaid $600,000 in principal and $478,000 in accrued interest-to-date. In addition, new loan notes for the remaining amount ($1.4 million) were put in place. All existing loans have been consolidated into notes with a term of 10 years with equal repayment of principal and interest for all lenders. From 2005 onwards, the board will determine repayment amounts at the end of the year with the target being to pay all accrued interest each year and $200,000 in principal.  The new loan notes will enable the repayment of principal and interest while keeping fee growth to a minimum.

2005 Budget

Priorities established by the board for 2005 include:

  1. Keep existing service operating effectively.
  2. Improve use of existing CrossRef linking and services - outbound reference linking, forward linking, improve matching rate and more proactive failed query reporting to individual members.
  3. Continue CrossRef Search Pilot and engage with Google Scholar.
  4. New content types (components, working papers and theses in development; work being done on datasets, standards and patents).
  5. Begin Multiple Resolution pilot.
  6. Institutional Repositories - investigate IR developments and start to develop working relationships with IR community.

The financial outlook for the 2005 budget remains positive. Cash should climb to $1,596,000 at March 31, 2005 before declining slightly during the remaining quarters. The year end cash balance is projected to be $1,000,000 after repaying accrued interest on the loans and $200,000 in principal.

Overall revenues are budgeted for 2005 at $3,021,000—an increase of $141,000 (5%) over 2004, compared to the small decrease in revenues from 2003 to 2004. This 5% increase results from the combination of modest growth in publisher and affiliate membership and deposits, and more robust growth in local hosting. Annual dues from members will continue to constitute 22% of total revenues as they did in 2004 (compared to 5% in 2003).

The 2005 budget for operating expenses is $2,597,000, which represents an increase of $245,000 (10%) over the 2004. The largest expense items are the continued high legal expenditure and staffing costs (which increase 11%). Legal costs are budgeted to remain near the high level seen in 2004 and one new staff position has been budgeted for 2005.

Administrative/Governance Issues

CrossRef Committees - the CrossRef board has set up a number of committees. A list of the committees and the members of the committess is available at The committees are a vital part of CrossRef governance and play a key role in making CrossRef an effective organization that is reponsive to its members' needs.

The Executive Committee, Nominating Committee, Loan Committee and Audit Committee (Linda Beebe, APA, Chair) are all made up of board members and are established in the organization's By-laws, Section VII ( The other committees have been appoineted by the board as Special Committees and have board and general members.

The Technical Working Group (TWG), Howard Ratner, Nature, Chair, is open to all members and is made up of the technical representatives from all members and affiliates. There is an email list, a monthly telephone conference call and some in person meetings. The TWG discusses all technical aspects of the CrossRef system and provides a forum for discussing issues, new system features and other general technical matters. The TWG also provides input and feedback on CrossRef system developments - among other things the TWG has discussed the addition of new content types and the development of Forward Linking.

The Membership and Fees Committee (M&F), Tim Ingoldsby, AIP, Chair, is made up of board members and invited general members.  Its purpose is to regularly review the CrossRef membership policies and fees and make recommendations to the board on changes. The M&F Committee had a large role in setting the current fee structure and recently reviewed the procedures for new members joining CrossRef.

The CrossRef Search Committee, Craig Van Dyck, Wiley, Chair, is made up of board members and participants in the CrossRef Search Pilot and has regular conference calls to discuss the CrossRef Search Pilot and policy issues around CrossRef Search.

The Institutional Repositories Commitee (IR), Bernie Rous, ACM, Chair, was recently established to look into the issue of Instiutional Repositories and the implications for CrossRef and its member publishers. One goal is to develop a deeper understanding of the best way to integrate “grey literature” with formal publication and to evaluate the entire IR process as it unfolds. The IR Committees is talking to librarians and developers of IRs to understand all the issues around repositories and how CrossRef might work with them.

2005 Board elections - every year 5 of the 15 board seats are up for election. There are two ways to be on the election slate. The Nominating Committee of the board puts forward a slate of candidates and any member can be an Indepdendent Candidate (the procedures for this are outlined in the By-laws). The list of current board members and their terms is at - The Nominating Committee will be soliciting input on the slate for the 2005 elections (taking place in November) in the summer.

Categorization for 2005 Annual Member Fees - thank you to all the members who used the online form to categorize themselves.  Invoices for the 2005 Annual Membership went out in December and should now all be paid.

December invoices - invoices for the 4th quarter were sent at the beginning of January. The breakdown of deposits by title is available at

Forward Linking - those publishers who are now depositing references for Forward Linking need to sign up for the service - information and a link to the sign up form are at

Non-Linking Fee - members who do not implement outbound reference links within 18 months of becoming a CrossRef member are subject to the Non-Linking Fee -

CrossRef Search Pilot

The arrival of Google Scholar ( lead to a review of the CrossRef Search Pilot and discussion at the CrossRef board. The board approved continuing with the CrossRef Search Pilot in addition to engaging with Google to express publishers' concerns about certain aspects of the Google Scholar Beta and establish a more formal business relationship between Google and CrossRef.

On January 27th, representatives from the CrossRef board and staff - Tony Durniak (IEEE), Gordon Tibbitts (Blackwell), Craig Van Dyck (Wiley), Ed Pentz and Chuck Koscher (CrossRef) - had a very productive meeting at Google regarding Google Scholar, CrossRef Search and establishing a more formal business relationship between CrossRef and Google. Google agreed with the principle that if there are multiple versions of an article shown in the Google Scholar search results, the first link will be to the publisher's authoritative copy. Google would like to use the DOI as the primary means to link to an article so CrossRef and Google will be working on this as well as a template for common terms and conditions for use of publishers full text content.

The CrossRef Search Committee feels that CrossRef Search still provides a valuable service as a search focused on authoritative, peer-reviewed literature from a known set of sources. Google Scholar is a very broad search of all the web and includes any material that "looks scholarly" and the material comes from an unknown set of sources. Therefore, the schedule is for results from CrossRef Search to be delivered from Google Scholar starting in April (the results now come from the regular Google index).

The CrossRef Search Committee is also continuing discussions with Google on a number of technical issues, such as making sure coverage of CrossRef member content is complete and crawling of content is as efficient as possible.

There are now 35 publisher participating in the Pilot. For 2005 there is a fee of 5% of the annual membership fee for participation in the Pilot. This is to cover CrossRef's administrative costs. The summary information on the Pilot is at and the latest list of participants is at

Business Development Update

New Members - The Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) has recently joined CrossRef and plans to assign Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) to its Information Bridge platform, which currently contains 94,000 scientific and technical reports. OSTI is the largest provider of so-called “gray literature” to join CrossRef since CrossRef moved late last year to include publishers of working papers and technical reports among its members.

Other newly joined CrossRef members include the Water Environment Federation, the Japan Neurosurgical Society, the Japan Society for Clinical Immunology, Bentham Science Publishers, Logical Methods in Computer Science, the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine, the Physiological Society of Japan, the Japan Society on Odor Environment, and Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology. For a regularly updated listing of new members, go to

Library Advisory Board - The CrossRef Library Advisory Board met via teleconference on January 11 with the newly formed Institutional Repository Committee, chaired by Bernie Rous. The purpose of the call was to launch a dialogue between CrossRef publishers and the library community on the topic of institutional repositories and the potential for cooperation and interlinking. Minutes of the call are available by request from The next scheduled meeting of the LAB is Monday April 4th.

Conferences/presentations - Please see for a listing of CrossRef past and future exhibits and presentations.

Linkers - CrossRef runs periodic checks of the membership to verify linking status but sometimes our information is out of date. You can help by checking your linking status at (username: cr_member password: ref-linking) and letting us know if your "reference-links-live status" should be changed to “yes” (that is, active outbound reference linking) so that we can update this page accordingly and improve the accuracy of our records.

Fees - CrossRef now offers a discounted DOI fee schedule for reference works and other books containing large numbers of included chapters or entries -- see for details. CrossRef also supports DOI deposit for components of a registered work at the discounted price of 12 cents per DOI. Components include items such as graphs, tables, images, audio, video, programs, etc.

New high-volume query fee for library affiliates: Libraries who submit over 1 million queries within a given year will be assessed a fee of $3,000 at year-end; libraries who submit over 10 million queries within a given year will be assessed a $10,000 fee.

CrossRef System

CrossRef Title List - a new and improved Title List is available on the CrossRef website - The Title List now includes coverage information for all the titles in the CrossRef system, publisher of the title and also lists title DOIs when they have been assigned. Please check your titles and if you notice any incorrect information please contact

Web Deposit Form - an easy-to-use web form is now available for depositing metadata and registering DOIs for journal articles.  No XML knowledge is necessary. This form is best suited for small numbers of manual deposits. Books and conference proceedings deposits will be available soon on the Web Deposit form. The page is available at

CrossRef DOI Proxy Server - CrossRef has an operational mirror of the DOI proxy server. This is automatically taking some of the load for DOI resolutions. The server is at CrossRef also has an operational secondary Handle system as a backup to the main DOI Handle Server hosted by CNRI.

Failed Query Reports - a failed query report is available at The report shows details on queries (references) sent to CrossRef that don't match (i.e. where a DOI isn't found or CrossRef doesn't recognize the title in the reference). For example, in the summary report, the top 20 titles requested that CrossRef doesn't have are shown. CrossRef uses this information for recruitment purposes. The other part of the report shows queries where the title was recognized but CrossRef didn't have the year or volume requested.

Forward Linking - Forward Linking is now fully live and operational. References are being deposited for 840 journals so far. This service will really start to take off in 2005. Information and a link to the sign up page is available at -

Stored Queries - (formerly known as "Query Match Alerts" and "Forward Matching) - using the XML query format publishers have started to use the stored query functionality, where CrossRef stores unmatched queries and notifies the submitter when there is a match. The use of stored queries is on the rise and there are now about 1 million stored queries.

Multiple Resolution - the multiple resolution pilot is moving along well. A draft change to the deposit schema has been completed and any publisher wishing to particpiate can now constuct trial XML files with multiple resolution information.  Information and a demo are at Examples are available at

DOI News

The November 2004 DOI News is available at


ISSN Revision Committee - The Revision Committee met February 3-4 at Elsevier in Amsterdam and is moving forward to produce a draft standard by May 2005. The main areas being addressed are 1) Scope: What can an ISSN be assigned to? This is a difficult issue with the rise in blogs and websites that in some respects are "continuing resources" but really do not meet the criteria for ISSN assignment. 2) New Services: How can the ISSN Register provide a more effective ISSN lookup services to more effectively disseminate ISSN information? The details of a new ISSN lookup service have been mapped out and will be implemented by ISSN over the next year. 3) Title Identification: How can the ISSN be used with other naming systems such as Digital Object Identifiers (DOI), the "info" URI scheme used in OpenURL? The current proposal is that a title-level ISSN (t-issn) will be created using an existing print or electronic ISSN - the t-issn will be used for OpenURL linking and identifying a journal irrespective of format. In addition, the t-issn could be used as the DOI suffix in a journal title DOI. Documentation about the t-issn is being written and will be distributed to publishers and other ISSN stakeholders for review and comment over the next few months. 4) Product Identification: Is there potential for a product level identifier that would interface with the ISSN? The ISSN can be used in product identification but it was decided that this is outside the scope of what the ISSN standard should address.

NISO News - the February NISO Newsline is available at

STM Conference, Hot Topics in Digital Publishing, April 21-22, 2005

Hot Topics in Digital Publishing: Optimizing Access in the Digital Age: Funding, Technology, and Users

April 21-22, 2005 - venue National Education Association, 1201 Sixteenth Street, - Washington, DC.

Get the latest information and register at -

LOCKSS Program Update

(This text was contributed by Victoria Reich,

The LOCKSS system is dedicated to building an affordable digital preservation system and is steadily gaining acceptance , support and adoption by the library community as a practical and important service. Less than a year into production mode, 90 LOCKSS machines at libraries worldwide are collecting, auditing, and preserving electronic journal content []. Libraries find their LOCKSS machines easy to bring online and to maintain. Approximately a dozen libraries are contributing technical and collection development expertise. Publishers easily give permission for copyrighted content to be preserved; seventy publishers responsible for over 2000 titles endorse the LOCKSS Program. Titles are being made available, prudently. As of December 2004, 77 titles are being preserved []. There will be a significant increase in the number of available during 2005.

It is worthwhile to review the key aspects of the LOCKSS initiative at this point in its evolution:

*Repository management.* Each library that wants to own and preserve a copy of an e-journal instructs its LOCKSS machine to ingest a copy from the publisher, preserve it and disseminate it to that library's readers whenever they can't get it from the publisher. LOCKSS machines preserving the same content cooperate to reduce costs by a process of mutual audit and repair.

*Quality control.* The LOCKSS system's unique continuous automatic full peer-to-peer audit mechanism compares many independently collected copies of the publishers content, reaches consensus on what the publisher published, and preserves that content.

*Migration*. LOCKSS peers preserve content in the format as originally published. When that format becomes obsolete, the LOCKSS peer will transparently convert the stored format into one the reader's browser can understand. This capability was demonstrated at a recent NARA workshop [].

*Format metadata.* Extraction and validation of format metadata needs to be automated to keep preservation costs manageable. Browsers use Mime-Type format metadata to render the Web content they receive; the LOCKSS system automatically collects and preserves it, and uses it to control format migration. The LOCKSS team is working to improve this process by incorporating Harvard's JHOVE and other automatic extraction and validation technologies.

*Bibliographic metadata*. The LOCKSS software acquires and preserves bibliographic metadata, typically at the journal volume. The LOCKSS team is investigating providing bibliographic metadata at the individual article level, using automatic extraction technology similar to Google Scholar (

*Standards.* The LOCKSS system conforms to the OAIS standard. It uses OAI-PMH to ingest and export metadata, and will use the new OAI-PMH techniques for content harvesting. It can use OAI-PMH to control content harvesting, and will conform to the emerging standard in this area. The ability to ingest and export bibliographic metadata via OIA-PMH will be released shortly.

The LOCKSS Program will continue to evolve as it responds to community input. For more information, see or contact Victoria Reich, Director LOCKSS Program, Stanford University Libraries, 650 725 1134.