Members, Affiliates and Agents

2003 Statistics

CrossRef had a very good finish to 2003 and saw excellent growth in all key metrics. Statistics at the end of the 2003 compared to 2002 were:

2003 Total 2002 Total increase/decrease
Journals 9,000 6,946 +29%
Total Records 9,960,631 6,467,161 +54%
December DOI Resolutions 4,216,689 2,064,290 +104%
Members 264 173 +53%
Linkers 161 88 +83%
Depositors 240 125 +92%
Total Deposits (DOIs registered) 3,464,604 3,063,865 +13%
Queries (references submitted) 101,177,977 101,357,569 -0.2%
Matches (DOIs returned) 18,266,364 10,578,908 +73%
Match % 18% 14% +28%

2003 Financials (figures not yet audited)

Income Statement:
2003 Full Year
Actuals Budget 2002
Revenues 2,919 2,424 2,068
Expenses 2,219 2,250 1,747
Net Income 700 174 321

Financial Summary:

We had a strong finish to 2003 and finished with revenues 20% over budget - this was primarily due to a high number of deposits and queries in the 4th quarter of 2003. Expenses were 11% below budget for the year leading to a very strong Net Income of $700,000. CrossRef's audit will be taking place starting March 29th.

2004 Year-to-date Statistics

2004 Year-to-date
Journals 9,150
Total Records 10,284,852
January DOI Resolutions 5,385,742
Members 284
Linkers 165
Depositors 242
Total Deposits (DOIs registered) 319,287
Queries (references submitted) 33,325,851
Matches (DOIs returned) 10,663,202
Match % 31%

We will begin breaking out journals, books and conference proceedings in 2004. Of the 10,284,852 total DOIs currently in the CrossRef system 667,930 are from conference proceedings and 48,753 from books (titles and chapters or encyclopedia entries).

DOIs in Use

On January 19th CrossRef announced that it passed the 10 million DOI mark - the 10 millionth DOI registered was doi:10.1265/ehpm.8.184 from the Japanese Society for Hygiene. The press release is at

A new type of content in CrossRef is the Molecule Pages produced by Nature Publishing Group and the Alliance for Cellular Signaling. To see a DOI in action from the Molecule Pages, click on doi:10.1038/mp.a000111.01 (for username/password, please use mp_user/molecule).

Affliate News - The next release ISI's of Web of Knowledge will integrate DOI links from CrossRef for all databases (Web of Science - Current Contents Connect - BIOSIS - CABI - INSPEC - PsycInfo). ISI has been using DOIs as part of its extensive links portfolio (which links to many different services and types of content) for over a year but will now also get DOIs directly from CrossRef. Thomson Scientific (including ISI and Dialog) is a CrossRef Affiliate.

Administrative Matters

The new fee structure is now in place and we will be assessing how it is doing. It may be necessary to adjust the fees based on practical experience.

The new Annual Membership Fee is based on total publishing revenue - see the fee information for more details - The general policies for the Annual Membership Fee are:

  • Total publishing revenue includes all publishing revenue from all the divisions of an organization (primary and secondary) for all types of activities (advertising, books, journals, databases, article charges, etc). For membership organizations, member dues allocated to subscriptions will be included in total publishing revenue.
  • The member is considered to be the largest legal entity rather than a division.
  • Membership fee billing for 2004 and forward will be done on a calendar year basis.
  • Members will self-categorize.

Since this is a new fee structure, CrossRef will be verifying that publishers are correctly categorized.

Business Development Update

New content types - Our thanks to members who completed and returned their CrossRef data forms for 2004 billing. Now that members are paying an annual fee based on *total publishing revenue* (or should be), members who publish books and conference proceedings are strongly encouraged to begin assigning DOIs to these content types as well. Note that books need not be in electronic form to benefit from DOI registration. For more information, please contact Amy Brand (

CrossRef is actively exploring ways to work with other types of scholarly content, and has recently begun a pilot project with the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution for registration of select government-copyrighted working papers and other non-traditional content types such as data sets.

Conferences - CrossRef staff will be presenting at a number of industry conferences this spring, including the Council of Science Editors, ICSTI, the Association of American University Press, and the Society for Scholarly Publishing. Please see for the regularly updated listing.

Remember: the 2004 CrossRef Annual Meeting will be on November 9th, 2004 at the Charles Hotel, Cambridge, MA.

Articles - The December issue of the ICSTI Forum focuses on linking and includes an article entitled "CrossRef after three years" (

New members - Membership in CrossRef is growing at a record rate, with 30 new publishers signing on in the last two months alone. The CrossRef homepage now includes a feature entitled "new members" where you can regularly check out the most recent members (

The CrossRef Indicators page ( is new and provides a regularly updated tally of CrossRef activity. Several new libraries have also signed up, and we are extremely pleased to welcome two new A&I affiliates: the Energy Technology Data Exchange of the US Department of Energy ( and the European Bioinformatics Institute (

CrossRef System

We want to highlight a range of new services on the CrossRef System and encourage members to start using them. The services are all based around the new XML Query Format. Using the new services will require publishers to change current processes but there are many benefits to using the new services. The new CrossRef services are:

Query Match Alert (aka Forward Matching) - when sending in a set of queries (references to lookup DOIs) a submitter can request to be notified when there is a match on unmatched references - CrossRef stores any unmatched queries on its system, runs the stored queries when new content is deposited and emails the submitter when any new matches are made. Currently, publishers must periodically resend unmatched queries to check and see if there are any new matches. Using the Query Match Alert service will remove the need for this and cut down on system traffic for both CrossRef and the publisher.

Multiple Hits - by using the new XML Query format (see below) it is possible to request multiple hits. Currently, when someone sends in a reference to match to a DOI, either there is a unique match or nothing is returned. By requesting multiple hits, multiple answers can be returned. The Guest Query Form at has been modified to now use the XML query spec and multiple hits can be requested. We are investigating the possible uses of multiple hits - for instance, multiple hits could be used as part of the editorial process to verify links and correct. Please take a look at the Guest Query Form and let us know what you think.

Forward Linking - this new service is scheduled to go live in June. Testing of the new functionality is under way. Documentation on "How to Forward Link" is available -

XML Query Format - the new CrossRef services are enabled by the XML query format. The XML Query schema is now at version 2.0 and it is necessary to use this for Multiple Hits, Query Match Alerts, Forward Linking and other features. The "How To Query" documentation has been updated at The XML Query Schema is at

Conference Proceedings Depositor Report - there is now a new report listing deposits of conference proceedings by publisher. A report on books is in development -

IDF Update

On February 1, 2004 the IDF announced that Nielsen BookData (the UK ISBN agency) had been appointed a Registration Agency (RA). The IDF will be announcing shortly that Bowker (the US ISBN agency) has also been appointed an RA. This brings the total number of RAs, including CrossRef, to 9. The latest DOI news from February is at Having two large ISBN agencies becoming DOI RAs is an important step for the DOI. Bowker and Nielsen BookData will be joining the Registration Agency Working Group (RAWG) of the IDF and CrossRef looks forward to working with them on interoperability. No IDF RA has exclusivity, so it is likely that there will be competition between RAs for certain types of business.  Nevertheless, all RAs must operate with the general IDF framework.

Other News

ISO ISSN Revision Working Group

This group held its first meeting in January. One of the fundamental questions is "what should the ISSN identify?" Currently, different ISSN are assign to different formats (print and online) and different editions (language, geographic). The Working Group discussed whether the ISSN should identify serials at the "work" level - i.e. there would be one ISSN for all formats and editions of a serial, whether the system should stay as it is now by having separate ISSN for formats and editions or whether the ISSN should do both. Doing both could mean having a main ISSN for a journal at the work level with format/edition ISSN grouped under the main ISSN. The Working Group outlined the main ISSN user communities and decided to get input from the different communities on a number of different scenarios for ISSN.

A main concern for CrossRef is whether the ISSN can be used as the suffix for a DOI for a journal title. If there were a title-level ISSN, it could be used as the suffix for a DOI for a journal title. The different ISSN scenarios will be ready in the next few weeks and Ed Pentz of CrossRef and Cliff Morgan of Wiley will be getting feedback from scholarly publishers on the ISSN scenarios.

The Working Group also agreed to request that the ISSN decision structure be opened to the ISSN community outside of the library world (e.g. publishers, subscriptions agents, etc).

Another important issue was how to deal with websites and weblogs requesting ISSN - reasonable criteria are needed to assess whether sites should be assigned ISSN.

How Many Online Scholarly Journals?

The Library Journal has an interesting article by Carol Tenopir estimating the number of online, scholarly journals - between 16,000 and 25,000 is the number.


Amy Brand is helping to organize a NISO Metadata Workshop on May 20th - more information will be available soon. NISO is working on a number of activities - OpenURL is currently out for ballot ( along with a number of other standards. CrossRef is a voting member of NISO so please send any comments you might have on any issues.

NISO is continuing work on the MetaSearch Initiative ( and has set up Task Groups on Access Management, Collection Description and Search/Retrieve.