cited-by linking


Wouldn't it be nice if there was an easy way for you to show your authors and readers exactly what was citing your content? Crossref Cited-by Linking (formerly Forward Linking) is a service that allows you to discover how your publications are being cited and to incorporate that information into your online publication platform. Participation in Crossref Cited-by Linking is entirely optional and there is no charge for it, but in order to participate, there is an important quid-pro-quo: in order to discover what publications cite your content, you must in turn submit metadata listing the works that your publications cite.

In practice, this is not hard to do. Reference metadata can be easily included within normal batch DOI deposits, and it is now even possible to deposit references for Cited-by Linking through the cut-and-paste Simple Text Query interface.

But, as is the case with all Crossref initiatives, the utility of Cited-by Linking is directly proportional to the uptake of the membership and, although Crossref staff actively promotes Cited-by Linking to its membership through webinars and email reminders, participation in the service has been limited. This, in turn, means that the utility of the "Cited By" information varies greatly across disciplines and publishers.

Although there are other services that provide cited-by facilities (e.g. Google Scholar, Scopus, ISI and some hosting providers.), we think that Crossref Cited-by Linking complements these other services because:

  1. It is controlled and managed by the Crossref membership. As such, it enables direct primary publisher-to-publisher linking without the use of intermediaries.
  2. It is not tied to any particular "metric", although the metadata provided by the service could be used by others to either validate existing metrics or as the foundation for creating new metrics.
  3. It is not constrained by discipline and, as such, will prove useful for discovery of otherwise hard-to-find interdisciplinary citations and for use by publishers in fields that are underserved by the other services.
  4. It is not constrained by content type. Crossref can accept reference data for journals articles, monographs, reference works, etc.
  5. The Crossref Cited-by Linking service is built on top of the DOI infrastructure and, as such, is very precise.
  6. Crossref is increasingly being looked to as a source for collecting authoritative publisher metadata. We are finding that those who seek to use Crossref's metadata services are increasingly interested in collecting reference metadata as well. We worry that, if they can not get citation metadata from us, they will resort to using the much less accurate metadata that they can gather through screen scraping and services like Google Scholar.

Note: Because this is an optional service for our members and only a subset of the membership is currently participating, you will only be able to retrieve a partial list of the DOIs that actually cite your content. Crossref cited-by links are not intended for use as a citation metric.

Cited-by stats as of January 2016:

  • Articles with references deposited: 27,557,841
  • Total number of cited-by links: 526,230,299

To make use of this service, publishers will need to do the following two transactions with Crossref:

1) Supply Crossref with the reference list for each article deposited in Crossref
2) For any given article you wish to show cited-by links for, query Crossref (using its DOI) to retrieve the list of citing articles as identified by their DOIs.

Live examples of Cited-by Linking

Edinburgh University Press has implemented Crossref Cited-by Linking. An example is provided here: The links appear under a "Cited by" heading below the
article abstract.

The Institute of Physics Publishing provides an "articles citing this article" feature that now includes several links from other participating Crossref publishers. To see a live example from the New Journal of Physics (an open-access journal), click on and follow the "articles citing this article" link below the abstract.

The Public Library of Science has also gone live with Crossref-based Cited-by Linking! To see an example, click on 10.1371/journal.pbio.0000005 and follow the "see articles citing this article" link on the right.

The Japanese Pharmacological Society has a great example of Crossref-based Cited-by Linking! Please click on the following link and follow the "JST Link Center Cited" logo on the right.

The Royal Society of Chemistry has also implemented Crossref Cited-by Linking. The "Search for citing articles" link (under "Free access") on the following page provides an example of it in action:

BioOne has also gone live with Crossref Cited-by Linking. An example can be viewed by clicking on the below DOI, selecting Full Text and then on the right hand side clicking on "See Articles Citing this Article".[0001:MASITP]2.0.CO;2

Cited-by Linking Policies

1. Participation in Cited-by Linking is optional for Crossref members.

2. Participants must deposit references from their current material and must retrieve data (i.e. retrieve “cited-by” links to link to other  participants).  Participants must be depositing references from current material before retrieving data. A Member will be deemed to have started participating in when they begin depositing references.

3. Members may only retrieve data to display in primary articles that they publish, whether for display on primary journal platforms or within their secondary products. Agents will be able to retrieve data on behalf of members who participate in and deposit references.

4. There will be no “public” interface for retrieving data. There is currently a form for free single DOI lookup on the Crossref website but no equivalent form will be available for data.

5. There is no charge for participation in Cited-by Linking.

6. Cited-by Linking will not be available for secondary records, except as described in policy #3 above.

7. Cited-by Linking will only be available for member use in primary content.

Cited-by Linking Implementation

For technical implementation please visit our Crossref Help section.

Sign up!

Only current, active members of Crossref may register for Cited-by Linking. Please proceed to the registration page.

Publishers that have signed up:


AACE Corp (American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists)
ABEAT - Associacao Brasileira de Especialistas em Alta Tecnologia
Academic Journals
Adam Mickiewicz University
Advanced Electromagnetics
Advanced Research Journals
Agricultural History Society
Agricultural Institute of Canada
AIP Publishing
Air & Waste Management Association
Akademiai Kiado
American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)
American Academy of Periodontology (AAP)
American Association for the Advancement of Science AAAS (Science)
American Chemical Society (ACS)
American Cleft Palate Association
American Dental Society of Anesthesiology (ADSA)
American Diabetes Association
American Economic Association
American Fisheries Society
American Geophysical Union (AGU)
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
American Institute of Mathematical Sciences (AIMS)
American Journal of Comparative Law
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
American Library Association
American Marketing Association (AMA)
American Meteorological Society
American Occupational Therapy Association
American Pharmacists Association
American Physical Society (APS)
American Psychiatric Publishing
American Roentgen Ray Society (ARRS)
American Society for Cell Biology
American Society for Clinical Investigation
American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP)
American Society for Microbiology
American Society of Agronomy
American Society of Civil Engineers
American Society of Hematology
American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.
American Society of Neuroradiology (ASNR)
American Society of Parasitologists
American Society of Plant Biologists (ASPB)
American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
American Statistical Association (ASA)
American Thoracic Society
Ammons Scientific
Annual Reviews
AOSIS Open Journals
AOTA Press
Asian Pacific Prostate Society
Asociacion Nacional de Historia y Antropologia de los Cuidados
Associacao Brasileira de Criminalistica - ABC
Associacao de Estudos E Pesquisas Em Politicas E Practicas Curriculares
Associacao Nacional de Pesquisa e Pos Graducao em Turismo (ANPTUR)
Asociacion Paleontologica Argentina
Associacao Portuguesa dos Recursos Hidricos (APRH)
Association For Applied Psychophysiology And Biofeedback
Association for Career and Technical Education Research
Association for Experiential Education
Association for Fire Ecology
Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO)
Avens Publishing Group

Baywood Publishing Company, Inc.
Behaviormetric Society of Japan
Bellwether Publishing
Bentham Science Publishers
Bioinfo Publications
BioInfoBank Institute
Biology Centre, ASCR
Biomedical Research and Therapy
Blay Publishers LLC
Bloomsbury Qatar Foundation Journals
BMJ Group
Bogor Agricultural University
Bogucki Wydawnictwo Naukowe
BoletiĀ­n de la Sociedad Geologica Mexicana
Borderless Science Publishing
Botanic Garden & Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem BGBM
Botanical Society of America
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis
Byte Systems - Solucoes Digitais

Cambridge University Press (CUP)
Canadian Aeronautics and Space Institute
Canadian Center of Science and Education
Canadian Centre of Academic Art and Science
Canadian Institute of Geomatics
Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society (CMOS)
Canadian Periodical for Community Studies, Inc.
Canadian Science Publishing
Canadian Water Resources Association
Canadian Young Scientist Journal
Carden Jennings Publishing Co.
Center for Migration Studies
Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation
Center of Physical Chemical Methods of Research and Analysis
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Centre of Sociological Research
CFA Institute
Charles University in Prague, Karolinum Press
Chelonian Research Foundation
Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University
Chemical Science Transactions
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Chinese Birds
Chinese Institute of Automation Engineers (CIAE)
Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering
CIG Media Group, LP
Co-Action Publishing
Consortia Academia Publishing
Copernicus Gesellschaft mbH
Council for British Archaeology
Croatian Forest Research Institute
Crop Science Society of America
CSIRO Publishing
Czech Geological Society
Czech Geological Survey

Decker, Inc.
Department of Biomedical Imaging, University of Malaya, Malaysia
Department of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University
Dialogue and Discourse
Dietitians of Canada
Duncker & Humblot GmbH

Ecological Society of America
Edinburgh University Press
Editions NecPlus
Editorial Department of Engineering Sciences
EDP Sciences
Education Association of South Africa
Educational Research e-Journal (EREJ)
Edward Elgar Publishing
Elsevier BV
EMW Publishing
Endocrine Society
Energy Economics Education Foundation, IAEE
English Literature in Transition
Enviro Research Publishers
Environmental Health Perspectives
EPI SCP (El Profesional de la Informacion)
Equinox Publishing
Escola das Artes, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa
European Journal of Chemistry
European Optical Society
Expert Reviews, Ltd.

Faculty of 1000
Faculty of Agriculture and Food Science (Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra)
Faculty of Organizational Sciences, University of Belgrade, Serbia
Faculdade Cenecista de Campo Largo
Facultad de Odontologia, Universidad de Concepcion
Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciencias (FACECLA)
Faculty of Physical Education and Sport
Frontiers Media SA
Fundacao Educacional de Ituverava
Fundacao Instituto de Administracao
Fundacao Universidade Estadual de Maringa
Fundacion para el Analisis Estrategio y Desarrollo de la Pequena y Mediana Empresa (FAEDPYME)
Future Medicine Ltd

Gemological Institute of America
Geological Society of America
Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences
George Washington University
Green Theory and Praxis: The Journal of Ecopedagogy
Growing Science
Grupo Comunicar
Guilford Publications
Gunther Eysenbach (JMIR) / University Health Network)

Healthcare Bulletin
Heldref Publications
Herbert Publications Pvt. Ltd.
Herpetologists' League
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Hitte Journal of Science and Education
Hogrefe & Huber
Human Geographies

IGI Global
Image Processing On Line
Indian Academy of Neurosciences
Indiana University Press
Informa UK Limited
Insight Knowledge
Institucion Universitaria CESMAG
Institute for Environmental Nanotechnology
Institute of Aeronautics and Space
Institute of Archaeology and Art History Cluj-Napoca
Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Institute of Hematology, Catholic University
Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics
Institute of Organic Chemistry & Biochemistry
Institutional Investor Journals
Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP)
Integrated Publishing Association
Inter-Research Science Center
International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE)
International Association for Fire Safety Science
International Association for Multidisciplinary Research (IAMURE)
International Association of Astacology
International Dental Research
International Dose-Response Society
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
International Monetary Fund
International Phycological Society
International Reading Association
International Scientific Literature
International Society for Gerontechnology (ISG)
International Society for Phytocosmetic Sciences
International Society of Endovascular Specialists
International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)
IOP Publishing
IP Publishing, Ltd.
IS, GUC (The Journal of Industrial Relations and Human Resources)
Islamic Medical Association of North America

Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)
Japan Society of Applied Physics
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishing
JMIR Publications Inc.
John Benjamins Publishing Company
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs
Jong-Eun Lee
Jose Yvan Pereira Leite
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine Press
Journal of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences
Journal of Gambling Issues
Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
Journal of Mobile Technology in Medicine
Journal of Neurosurgery Publishing Group (JNSPG)
Journal of New Approaches in Educational Reserach (NAER)
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy (JOSPT)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management
Journal of Tropical Soils
Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE

KKMed Publications
Korea Basic Science Institute
Korea Society of Breeding Science
Korean Academy of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology
Korean Acupuncture & Moxibustion Medicine Society
Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors (KAMJE)
Korean Cancer Association (KAMJE)
Korean Council of Science Editors
Korean Epilepsy Society
Korea Institute for International Economic Policy
Korean Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI)
Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology
Korean Society of Cancer Prevention
Korean Society of Clinical Nutrition
Korean Society of Clinical Oncology
Korean Society of Exercise Rehabilitation
Korean Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Korean Society of Sandplay Therapy
Korean Society of Ultrasound in Medicine
Korean Vaccine Society
Kowsar Medical Institute

L & H Scientific Publishing
Laser Pages Publishing Ltd.
Leibniz-Institute of Psychology Information (ZPID)
Liceo de Cagayan University
Lifescience Global
Linkoping University Electronic Press
Literati Scientific and Publishers
Lithuanian Physical Society
Liverpool University Press
Logical Methods in Computer Science

M. E. Sharpe Inc.
Macedonian Journal of Medical Science
Macedonian Veterinary Review
Manchester University Press
Maney Publishing
Mars Informatics
Mary Ann Liebert Inc
Mathematical Sciences Publishers
Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research
Media Peternakan
Medip Academy
Mendel University Press
Men's Studies Press, LLC
Michael Joanna Publications
Microbiology Society
Middle East Technical University, Faculty of Architecture
MIT Press - Journals
ML Communications
Morgan & Claypool Publishers LLC
Mycotaxon, Ltd.

NACE International
National Institute of Informatics (NII)
National Library of Serbia
Nature Publishing Group
NeuroQuantology Journal
New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM/MMS)
Norwegian Society of Automatic Control
Nozomi Science

Oceanside Publications Inc.
Oldenbourg Wissenschaft
OMICS Publishing Group
Oncology Nursing Society (ONS)
Optical Society of America (OSA)
Oriental Scientific Publishing Company
ORNL Environmental Sciences Division
Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
Oxford University Press (OUP)

Papers in Physics
Pensoft Publishers
Philippine Association on Institutions for Research
Philosophy Documentation Center
Pier Professional
Polska Akademia Nauk Instytut Paleobiologii (Institute of Paleobiology, Polish Academy of Sciences)
Polskie Naukowo-Techniczne Towarzystwo Eksploatacyjne
Portland Press Ltd.
Primary Care Respiratory Society UK
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Professional Engineering Publishing (PEP)
Prof. Marin Drinov Academic Publishing House
Public Library of Science (PLoS)
Publishing House Technologija

Radiological Society of North America
Research Foundation of the CFA Institute
Research Publishing Services
Revista Chapingo Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente
Revista Universo Contabil
Riga Technical University
RNCSB Organization
Rockefeller University Press
Royal College of Psychiatrists
Royal Irish Academy
Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)

S. Karger AG
Samara State Technical University
Scholar Science Journals
Science Alert
Science China Press., Co. Ltd.
Science Publications
Science Publishing Corporation
Scientific Research Centre ZRC-SAZU
Scientific Research Publishing
Scientific Societies
ScopeMed International Medical Journal Management and Indexing System
Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics
SIGMA (Symmetry, Integrability and Geometry: Methods and Application)
Slovenian Society for Stereology and Quantitative Image Analysis
Smith and Franklin Academic Publishing Corporation, UK
Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment
Smithsonian Institution
Sociedade Portuguesa de Vida Selvagem (SPVS)
Societa Editrice Esculapio
Society for Pediatric Pathology (SPP)
Society for Sociological Science
Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE)
Sociological Research Online
Soil Science Society of America
Southern Appalachian Botanical Society (Castenea)
Spandidos Publications
Springer Publishing Company
Springer Science + Business Media
STEF92 Technology
Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava
Steklov Mathematical Institute
Stellenbosch University
Surgisphere Corporation
Synatom Research
Synergy Publishers

The American Academy of Implant Denstistry
The Company of Biologists
The Genomic Standards Consortium
The Institute for Research and Community Services (LPPM) ITB
The Korean Association of Immunobiologists (KAMJE)
The Korean Society for Brain and Neural Science (KAMJE)
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
The Physical Society of Japan
The Policy Press
The Royal Society
The Scientific Society Akroasis
The Sedimentological Society of Japan
The University of Hong Kong Libraries
Thomas Land Publishers
Thomas Telford Ltd.
Trans Tech Publications
Transportation Research Board
Turk Ortopedi ve Travmatologi Dernegi (Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica)
Turpion-Moscow Limited

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Ubiquity Press, Ltd.
UCTEA Chamber of Surveying and Cadastre Engineers
UNESCO Institute for Statistics
United Kingdom Serials Group
Universidad de los Andes
Universidad EAFIT
Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Universidade Estadual de Maringa
Universitat Politecnica De Valencia
Universiti Malaysia Pahang
University of Alicante
University of Bohol
University of California Press
University of Chicago Press
University of Defence
University of Lincoln, School of Film and Media and Changer Agency
University of Szeged
University of Texas Press
University of Toronto Press Inc. (UTPress)
University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences
University of Zagreb, Department of Mathematics
Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk (UFN) Journal
UPOL - Palacky University

Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht
V&R unipress
VBRI Press
Vedic Research International
Versita (CESJ)
Veterinary World
Vilnius Gediminas Technical University

Wageningen Academic Publishers
Walsh Medical Media, LLC
Walter de Gruyter
Weed Science Society of America
White Horse Press
Wildlife Information Liaison Development Society
Wilolud Journals
Woodhead Publishing
World Bank
World Academic Publishing Co., Limited
World Scientific Publishing


ZBW - German National Library of Economics
Zeta Books
ZPID - Leibniz-Institute for Psychology Information

For a print-friendly summary please see our Cited-by Linking handout (PDF).

Updated April 21, 2016