# The Crossref Curriculum

## Special characters in your XML

All XML submitted to our system must be UTF-8 encoded. There are two ways to include a special unicode character in a Crossref deposit XML file:

1. Encode the special character using a numerical representation. This is the preferred approach. Constructing an entity reference in the XML that is the numerical value of the character. For example, <surname>&#352;umbera</surname> includes the special character S with a háček (Š).
2. Use a UTF-8 editor or tool when creating the XML and insert characters directly into the file, which results in a one or more byte sequence per character in the file.

For example, an S with a háček (Š) has a decimal value of 352 which is 160hex. This value converts to the UTF-8 sequence C5,A0 in hex. You can create a small XML file in which you insert this two-byte sequence (shown here between the <UTF_encoded> tags).

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<start>
<UTF_encoded>Š</UTF_encoded>
</start>


The character displays properly in a browser but if you save the XML source and try to view it in certain editors, it will not display correctly.

## Character entities

XML based on schema does not support named character entities (sometimes referred to as html-encoded characters). For example, é or are not allowed. To include these characters you must use their numerical representation, &#x0E9; or &#x2013; respectively. These are called numerical entities, shown by the # (hash or pound sign). The x following # indicates the value is in hex (rather than decimal if the x were omitted). All entities must end with the ; character.

Character numerical values may be found in the Unicode Character Code Charts. Learn more about UTF-8 and unicode, and the ISO 8859 series of standardized multilingual graphic character sets for writing in alphabetic languages.

## Using face markup

Some style/face markup is supported by our schema but we recommend using it only when it is essential to the meaning of the text. Learn more about face markup.

Last Updated: 2020 April 8 by Laura J. Wilkinson