Our colleague and friend, Kirsty Meddings, passed away peacefully on 10th December at home with her family, after a sudden and aggressive cancer. She was a huge part of Crossref, our culture, and our lives for the last twelve years.
Kirsty Meddings is a name that almost everyone in scholarly publishing knows; she was part of a generation of Oxford women in publishing technology who have progressed through the industry, adapted to its changes, spotted new opportunities, and supported each other throughout.
Crossref has supported depositing metadata for preprints since 2016 and peer reviews since 2018. Now we are putting the two together, in fact we will permit peer reviews to be registered for any content type.
2020 has been a very challenging year, and we can all agree that everyone needs a break. Crossref will be providing very limited technical and membership support from 21st December to 3rd January to allow our staff to rest and recharge. We’ll be back on January 4th raring to answer your questions. Amanda explains more about why we made this decision.
On November 11th 2020, the Crossref Board voted to adopt the “Principles of Open Scholarly Infrastructure” (POSI). POSI is a list of sixteen commitments that will now guide the board, staff, and Crossref’s development as an organisation into the future. It is an important public statement to make in Crossref’s twentieth anniversary year. Crossref has followed principles since its founding, and meets most of the POSI, but publicly committing to a codified and measurable set of principles is a big step. If 2019 was a reflective turning point, and mid-2020 was about Crossref committing to open scholarly infrastructure and collaboration, this is now announcing a very deliberate path. And we’re just a little bit giddy about it.
The Crossmark button gives readers quick and easy access to the current status of an item of content, including any corrections, retractions, or updates to that record.
Research doesn’t stand still: even after publication, articles can be updated with supplementary data or corrections. It’s important to know if the content being cited has been updated, corrected, or retracted - and that’s the assurance that publishers can offer readers by using Crossmark. It’s a standardized button, consistent across platforms, revealing the status of an item of content, and can display any additional metadata the member chooses. Crucially, the Crossmark button can also be embedded in PDFs, which means that members have a way of alerting readers to changes months or even years after it’s been downloaded.
With one click, you can see if content has been updated, corrected, or retracted, and access valuable additional metadata provided by the member, such as key publication dates (submission, revision, acceptance), authors’ ORCID iDs, content type, plagiarism screening status, and information about funding, license, peer review, and location of research data.
Additional Crossmark metadata is entirely optional, and determined by the member. We are not setting any particular guidelines for types of additional record metadata, although we expect that guidelines and best practices may emerge from within communities of interest or within disciplines. Learn more about the retraction guidelines published by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).
For the purposes of Crossmark, there are two categories of updates: minor and major changes.
Minor changes include correcting formatting and spelling. There are no substantive changes you would need to alert the reader to, so the Crossmark status is current. If changes don’t affect the crediting or interpretation of the work, the Crossmark status remains as it is. This also applies to article versioning - if the changes between versions of a work don’t reflect major changes in the content of the paper, keep the Crossmark status as current.
Major changes affect the Crossmark status of the work, as Crossmark is geared towards letting readers know about significant changes to the published literature. Substantial changes, such as the retraction of an article due to an error, or the addition or removal of an author, should be reflected in a work’s Crossmark status. It is good practice to publish a notice of correction or retraction (with its own DOI) and not put it behind access control. This allows readers to follow the link in the Crossmark button and find further details about the update.
Watch the introductory Crossmark animation in your language:
Members can reassure readers that they’re keeping their content up-to-date and showcase additional metadata.
Researchers and librarians can easily see the changes to the content they are reading, find out who funded the research, what licenses apply to the content, and more.
Anyone can access the Crossmark metadata through our REST API, providing a myriad of opportunities for integration with other systems and analysis of changes to the scholarly record.
Evidence of trust
Crossmark is recognizable across all content, and gives members a way to provide evidence to readers of why they should trust the content; so they can use it and cite it with confidence.
Anyone can access the Crossmark metadata through our public REST API, providing a myriad of opportunities for integration with other systems, and analysis of changes to the scholarly record.
How Crossmark works
Members place the Crossmark button close to the title of an item of content on their web pages and in PDFs, and commit to informing us if there is an update such as a correction or retraction, as well as any additional metadata. They can also customize the popup box to include other signs of editorial rigor, such as the type of peer review used, whether the document was screened for originality using Similarity Check, and more. Version of record copies that are hosted by third parties can also display the Crossmark button.
The presence of a Crossmark button on a content item doesn’t by itself indicate that the document is up-to-date, but it shows that the publisher is maintaining the document somewhere. When a reader clicks on the button, a pop-up box appears that shows the current status of the content (up-to-date, updates available, or retracted), a persistent link to the publisher-maintained copy, and any additional information.
It’s important to apply the Crossmark button to all of your current content, not just content that has updates. The problem with partial implementation of Crossmark is that when an item of content is published you won’t know if it might need to be updated at some point in the future. Therefore, a researcher may download a PDF article today without a Crossmark button, but if the article is subsequently updated and the Crossmark button is added, the researcher has no way of knowing if their locally-saved article is still current, as it had no Crossmark button at the point when they downloaded it.
It’s also good practice to show the Crossmark button on all your content, to show readers that you are participating in Crossmark, and that they can check your content for updates through the button.
We encourage members to implement Crossmark for backfile content as well as current content, but doing so is optional. Even if you do not intend to implement Crossmark across your complete backfile, we encourage you to do so for archival content which has updates.
Obligations and fees for Crossmark
As a member participating in Crossmark, you agree to:
Maintain your content and promptly register any updates
Include the Crossmark button on all digital formats (HTML, PDF, ePub)
Implement Crossmark using the script provided by us
Not alter the Crossmark button in any way other than adjusting its size.
There is no annual service fee for Crossmark.
How to participate in Crossmark
Members participate in Crossmark by registering and assigning a DOI to a Crossmark policy statement. They then add a snippet of code to their landing pages and PDFs. This generates the Crossmark button and popup. The policy statement is a page on their website, which explains their participation in the service, their commitment to maintaining versions of any record that displays the Crossmark icon, and their policies on corrections, retractions, withdrawals, and other updates.
The minimum requirement for Crossmark metadata is:
To see which Crossref members are registering Crossmark information, visit Participation Reports. These reports give a clear picture for anyone to see the metadata Crossref has including Crossmark data.